AppliedMathematics

Sherli Koshy-Chenthittayil (she/her)

Sherli Koshy-Chenthittayil (she/her)

Born in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates • Birth Year 1983Studied Mathematics at Mahatma Gandhi University in IndiaHighest degree PhD in Mathematics from Clemson University, USALives in Nevada, USAOccupation Data Analyst

I am an applied mathematician and educator with interests in mathematical biology and STEM education. I am also invested in increasing diversity in STEM, particularly, with respect to students with disabilities. As a third culture Malayalee Indian who was born and raised in the Middle East and moved to the States for my PhD, I have had the best of three worlds – India, the Middle East, and the States. In addition to my love for all things related to math, I love books (all kinds), movies, Shahrukh Khan (Hindi actor), K-dramas, and BTS (K-pop group).  My mathematics journey started in school, where I fell in love with the logic and grace of the subject. My other passion was teaching the subject I loved most. It came as no surprise to everyone who knew me that I would pursue a mathematics teaching career.

I moved to India for my bachelor’s degree in mathematics, a master’s degree in mathematics, and even a bachelor’s degree in mathematics education. The theme is clear: I love mathematics. During my degrees, the beauty of proofs, and the varied applications of math spoke to me. I then started my own tutoring center in India and as a tutor in both higher education and K-12, I designed group projects as well as mathematics trivia games to increase inquiry and class participation.

Dealing with accessibility and gender representation in my math classes turned me into an advocate for women and people with disabilities in the STEM fields.

I was born with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and transitioned to a wheelchair in 2011. I then decided to move to the States for my PhD in applied mathematics. Dealing with accessibility and gender representation in my math classes turned me into an advocate for women and people with disabilities in the STEM fields. Working with like-minded colleagues has helped me realize the power of math in fighting social issues and in self-advocacy.

Leadership positions helped me navigate academia with confidence.

My journey after my PhD took me to Connecticut where I was a postdoctoral scholar. I used mathematical models to investigate biology and education related questions. I also was the President of the postdoctoral council. Leadership positions helped me navigate academia with confidence. Further nuances of the world of math were revealed to me during my postdoctoral tenure. I realized how mathematical models could be developed with constant input from my wet-lab colleagues.

I am looking forward to the discoveries of the versatility of mathematics.

I currently work as a Data Analyst with the Office of Institutional Effectiveness, Touro University Nevada. My job responsibilities include advising faculty, student and affiliate investigators on research design and analytical approaches to optimize research study quality and providing descriptive and inferential data analysis for a diversity of biomedical, institutional, and educational projects. I am looking forward to the discoveries of the versatility of mathematics.

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Qiaoqiao Ding

Qiaoqiao Ding

Born in Linyi, China • Birth year 1989 • Studied Applied Mathematics at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in Shanghai, China • Highest Degree Doctor in Mathematics • Lives in Shanghai, China • Occupation Assistant Research Scientist

When I was a teenager, I didn’t know what maths studies would be like. But I always took every maths lesson seriously and finished all the maths homework quickly and correctly, which gave me a sense of achievement and satisfaction among peers. I was able to find regular patterns in numbers or common features, which I found very exciting. I was not a very confident girl, but maths gave me strength.

Therefore, I decided to study maths at the University. However, I did not feel like the smartest student and university mathematics was very different from high school. I felt a bit frustrated and didn’t know how to reduce or eliminate the gap. In the second year of university, computational mathematics appeared in my life, which can be regarded as the combination of maths and computer science. Using computer science to solve mathematical problems and translating computer programs into mathematics language are two main aspects. I was attracted by the variety of applications and began to pay more attention to this field in the following semesters. From my Master’s to my doctoral research, my major was always applied mathematics. I did not only choose it because of my interests but also due to the possibility to get into contact with different subjects. Even though I saw more and more women devote themselves to computer science and mathematics, I was still hesitant. Would I do as well as men, as I needed to spend more time with my family? Could I be successful in this field? Could I find my favorite job? I did my best to find the answers to these questions.

If I can solve a problem with mathematics and present the result with a computational method, I will feel very happy.

I encountered many difficulties during my PhD. My advisor is also a woman and she gave me a lot of good advice. She had published many excellent works in optimization and medical imaging and supported my own research immensely. After finishing my PhD, I applied for an academic job in Singapore and worked there for three years. During that time, my husband was working in the US. We had to conquer the difficulty of time and distance. In my opinion, family is a very important part of one’s whole life. Every researcher needs to balance work and life, especially women. In China, women play a more important role in the relationship between husband and wife, the education of children and the connection with friends and relatives. Two years ago, my husband decided to return to China and he found a position in Shanghai. Finding a job in the same city is a big problem for me. I received a lot of help and advice from my collaborators and friends.

Now, maths has become a part of my life. Everyday, I try to solve some problems using mathematics tools and try to deduce some theorem or lemma to interpret the methodology. If I can solve a problem with mathematics and present the result with a computational method, I will feel very happy. My husband works as an assistant professor of mathematics in a university and we can discuss many interesting topics together. I think I can say that maths is my job and my life.

If anyone meets any predicament, I would strongly recommend to struggle. Try it and you will find it worth it.

At this stage of my life, I know what I want, i.e., working on applied mathematics and realizing my ideas. In China, as a woman, I never felt deprived or discriminated against for working in the field of maths or programming at the university. In fact, the contrary is the case and most people I encounter admire that I work in maths and computer science. A common perception in Chinese society is that maths is the most difficult subject and only the smartest people work on the research of it. In China, in order to encourage woman mathematicians to work in academia, many policies about gender quota have been made. In many job applications, women will be preferred over a man applicant if they have the same research abilities.

I am satisfied about the path I took, and very happy I had the courage to choose maths. I used to be afraid that I would not do well. But I know I can do my best, even if I am not the best researcher. Many of the maths students I met went through the same process and most of them did not give up. I think that most of the students that choose maths will persevere in difficult situations. If anyone meets any predicament, I would strongly recommend to struggle. Try it and you will find it worth it.

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Lakshmi Chandrasekaran

Lakshmi Chandrasekaran

Born in India • Studied Applied Mathematics at New Jersey Institute of Technology in New Jersey, USA • Highest Degree PhD in Applied Mathematics • Lives in Chicago, USA • Occupation Science communicator and Digital marketer

Growing up in India in the 90s and early 2000s, becoming a software engineer was a rage! The country’s obsession with software engineering was second only to a lucrative career in medicine. Although I went through a similar grind and familial expectations, by the time I finished high school, my mind was fraught with a constant debate between pursuing the software engineering versus physical sciences route such as math or physics – two of my favorite subjects in school. However, not being proficient at writing software codes it was easy to narrow down my choice. Experiencing calculus, vectors and 3D geometry in high school had piqued my interest enough to pursue my Bachelor’s in pure mathematics.

While my passion and curiosity for math never waned all through college, I started to wonder about the practical applicability of math in daily life. To this end, I started researching for universities with an applied mathematics graduate program. My foray into research started as a PhD student at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) where scientists applied math models to explore diverse phenomena ranging from detecting underwater submarines to the complex workings of the human body. These studies exposed me to the repertoire of math and also led me to think why I was oblivious to it until then. Perhaps it was the lack of communication, which stifled a wider appreciation.

I learnt how to translate, synthesize and communicate complex math equations in a manner that the biologists could easily relate to.

After completing my PhD, I did a couple of postdoctoral fellowships, during which I had frequent interactions with our biologist collaborators. I learnt how to translate, synthesize and communicate complex math equations in a manner that the biologists could easily relate to. In a way, I felt this was my first taste of “science communication” that left me wanting for more; since it bothered me persistently that I was still communicating science among scientists. 

At this juncture, I got an opportunity to freelance as a science writer for an online English language newspaper based in Germany – ‘The Munich Eye, (TME). I took this up as a challenge to disseminate science to a wider audience. A few years into this experience made me realize that I was happier communicating science than doing the science myself. I decided to switch gears and pursue a career in science communication. To shore up my science communication skill sets, I pursued a Master’s degree in science journalism at Northwestern University. I have never looked back since then and consider it to be one of my best career decisions.

Something that I encountered quite frequently as a science communicator was that scientists often struggled (or perhaps were reluctant) to be good marketers of their own work.

As a science writer, I freelanced for several popular science online and print outlets, communicating in lay a wide gamut of technical topics from climate change to science policy. I found that my technical expertise and research experience always came in handy when sifting through scientific work and translating them into easy-to-digest summaries. Until recently, I worked at a non-profit organization, communicating dementia science to a diverse set of stakeholders including the general public and donors. 

Something that I encountered quite frequently as a science communicator was that scientists often struggled (or perhaps were reluctant) to be good marketers of their own work. Understandably, part of this fear stems from the philosophy of not wanting to brag about one’s own research findings. However, I found this to be an interesting challenge – how do you then make an obscure field such as STEM also appealing to a lay audience? To this end, I recently completed an online certificate course in digital marketing from Northwestern Kellogg School of Management. I now look forward to applying my digital marketing and communications skill sets to promoting better awareness of science and enhancing public engagement between researchers and the general public.

Although you may think as a PhD you are solely trained to specialize in a niche area, doctoral training provides several useful skill sets (…).

Does all of this mean my PhD degree is not being put to any use? Absolutely not! Although you may think as a PhD you are solely trained to specialize in a niche area, doctoral training provides several useful skill sets such as writing, researching, mentoring, managing projects etc. coupled with professional life hacks such as resilience and tenacity, among others. I find myself regularly applying these handy skill sets in any work setting. I believe my academic background has better prepared me to have a fulfilling career in science communication and marketing in several indirect ways, for which I am forever grateful.

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Maurine Atieno Songa

Maurine Atieno Songa

Born in Kenya • Birth year 1986 Studied Mathematics at the University of Nairobi • Highest Degree MSc in Applied Mathematics from the University of Kwazulu-Natal • Lives in Durban, South Africa • Occupation PhD student at the University of Kwazulu-Natal and Assistant Lecturer, Kisii University, Kenya (on study leave)

I am currently pursuing a PhD degree in mathematics at the University of Kwazulu-Natal. My research uses the language of category theory, which is the study of objects and relationships between them, to unpack and understand real-life phenomena. The areas for its application are vast and include engineering, computer science, neuroscience, systems theory, and general relativity. This journey has indeed been a dream come true. I have loved mathematics since grade five, when I surprisingly performed well in an exam that brought together students from the whole district. I hadn’t always performed well before and I hadn’t been remotely aware that I could do well in mathematics. However, once I topped that exam, there was no going back. My mathematics teacher had taken notice that I could do well in mathematics, and he kept me on my toes. With more effort, I found the subject easier and more enjoyable than the rest. I enjoyed calculating sums and rejoiced when I got them right. It was as though a new world had opened up for me and the escape I found within it brought me peace. I also enjoyed teaching my classmates the concepts which they found difficult. In a way, my destiny had been sealed.

At higher levels of study, the main challenges we faced were a lack of resources and scarcity in the woman role models that we could look up to.

I must admit that the journey hasn’t always been easy. Much as the teachers encouraged us and pushed us to work hard, it wasn’t often easy to see the future that they envisioned. It was tough growing up in a village which had been ravaged by HIV/AIDS. Most of us were being raised up by grandmothers who were now frail. As my mother had died when I was eight years old, I had to rely on bursaries and scholarships to get through most of my schooling. It also wasn’t common for girls to love mathematics or to excel in it, and so, negative remarks were often made about mathematics. A narrative was pushed that mathematics was meant for boys, and that girls who loved it were to be feared. But the love, passion, and the escape that mathematics provided, together with the pressure and encouragement from the teachers, was enough to help me push through.

At higher levels of study, the main challenges we faced were a lack of resources and scarcity in the woman role models that we could look up to. We got to learn essential skills like programming so late, and even then, most of what we learned was theoretical. As such, we did not have the full knowledge required to forge forward in mathematics. Our knowledge about possible career avenues was also limited. In graduate school, I have struggled with imposter syndrome, a feeling that you are not worthy. Sharing this experience with a few colleagues has led me to the realisation that most of us struggle sometimes, especially those who came from humble backgrounds. My friends and colleagues have taught me to push back that negative voice and to often remember how far we have come.

To me, knowing these incredible women, and knowing that they, just like me, have overcome so much to get to where they are, is a testament that women are capable of extraordinary achievements in mathematics and other STEM-related areas.

There have been notable influences without which I couldn’t have reached this far. Attending the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) opened my eyes to the vast areas of applicability in mathematics. The networks they provided have proved invaluable. It was great getting to meet other women from Africa and finding out that we all had similar challenges growing up, and yet, with persistence and a little luck in terms of scholarships, we managed to push through. We could now cultivate and find inspiration amongst ourselves. I know that there are many heroes in the world of mathematics, but those who inspired me the most were peers I met during graduate school. I get inspired every day by exemplary woman peers who have gone ahead of me and attained their doctorates in mathematics. To me, knowing these incredible women, and knowing that they, just like me, have overcome so much to get to where they are, is a testament that women are capable of extraordinary achievements in mathematics and other STEM-related areas.

As such, it is imperative to teach our girls from early on that their gender does not prohibit them from excelling in the sciences or any career that has traditionally been set aside for the men. It should be our prerogative to instill in them that they too can be at the core of discoveries in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and engineering and that they can become whatever they dream and work hard towards. Girls need to know that there is much more that they can achieve in life if they work hard towards it. I am grateful to forums like Her Maths Story for highlighting our stories and for working towards changing the narrative.

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Karrie Liu

Karrie Liu

Born in Hong Kong • Studied Mathematics at University of York, UK • Highest Degree MSc in Applied Mathematics • Lives in London, UK • Occupation Freelance Mathematician / Founder of an analytical advisory company

Growing up in two distinct family cultures (Chinese parents in Hong Kong and “adoptive” English parents in the UK), I noticed that girls weren’t often encouraged in the same way that boys were. Many Asian parents would prefer that their daughters marry and focus on family rather than pursuing studies in higher education. Due to this, I wish to be a role model to younger generations, especially girls, so that they may be inspired and have the courage to follow their dreams. My ultimate goal is to improve the world through maths, data science and technology. Hence, that is why I set up an analytical consultancy company called the analytical advisory company Hypatia Analytics Ltd in 2019, which allowed me to spend more time on different types of charity work.

My ultimate goal is to improve the world through maths, data science and technology.

Since graduating from university, I have been applying my skills to continuously show people how they can use mathematics in healthcare and life sciences. During my tenure at the National Health Service (NHS), I participated in several diversity and equality projects. The NHS lacks information on ethnicity and I noticed that researchers had to use the general label “South Asian Name programme” to gather more details. I headlined a project discovering whether extra details can improve the name-test accuracy and to carry out diagnostics tests using patients’ self-reported ethnicity as the standard compared to test results. The outcome has been widely adopted in the Bradford/Leicester council area, improving NHS data and enabling valuable insights for local health economics planning.

Since data science is a relatively new type of career, many people haven’t yet fully understood why it is needed and how to apply it in the real world. Education is the key for people who want to be specialized professionals, but they also need to make the field accessible to the general population. My role as a trustee at The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA) allowed me to chair three national conferences to showcase how mathematics can be used with data science and helping others to get more help from the industry. 

My company [..] acts as an analytical advisor for charities providing statistical support for clean water programmes, using data science and technology to improve design and optimise resources needed to implement systems.

Skill-based volunteering is also very close to my heart; with my company Hypatia Analytics Ltd I have had the opportunity to voluntarily lead tech and maths projects engaging with the public and different charity organisations. Hypatia Analytics Ltd acts as an analytical advisor for charities providing statistical support for clean water programmes, using data science and technology to improve design and optimise resources needed to implement systems. The charity’s aim is for people’s lives to improve from having clean water close to their home. Hence, more children have time to attend school and the prevalence of illnesses is decreased.

In the summer of 2021, Hypatia Analytics Ltd in partnership with a charity promoting mathematics set up a Math & Data Summer programme called “Discover Data”. This program is a series of introductory workshops on how applied mathematics with real-world evidence can be used to address the world’s problems to students aged 14-17. However, the program  did not stop there, it had set up a monthly meeting to teach more, and we are now planning Summer 2022 face-to-face workshop.

I believe data and mathematics are at the heart of better decision-making and hope that people can benefit from it.

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Sanchita Chakraborty

Sanchita Chakraborty

Born in Bolpur, West Bengal, India • Birth year 1999 Studies Mathematics at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, USA • Highest Degree ongoing Bachelors of Science • Lives in West Lafayette, Indiana, USA • Occupation Student Researcher and Undergraduate Student

I always loved how neat math was. No matter the problem, the answers seem to come with a simple number. After taking partial differential equations and numerical analysis courses, it seems so silly now, the subject is anything but “neat”. It is complex, chaotic, and elegant, but what I have come to appreciate is its beauty, its ability to explain the world around us.

When I imagined a mathematician, I thought of an old man sitting in a flickering candle-lit room with melted wax and papers strewn around on an old wooden table. What did that really mean in the era of supercomputers, high-speed trains, planes and rockets?

As a child, I never really thought of being a mathematician as a job to pursue. I mean, to be fair the greats that I knew of only existed in Ancient Greece or Rome. When I imagined a mathematician, I thought of an old man sitting in a flickering candle-lit room with melted wax and papers strewn around on an old wooden table. What did that really mean in the era of supercomputers, high-speed trains, planes and rockets?

[..], I took the route of role models like Howard Wolowitz from the Big Bang Theory and Dr. Amelia Brand from Interstellar, and chose a degree in Aerospace Engineering.

So, when I had to choose a degree to study, I took the route of role models like Howard Wolowitz from the Big Bang Theory and Dr. Amelia Brand from Interstellar, and chose a degree in Aerospace Engineering. When I entered, I was excited by the engaging new problems I would learn to solve – whether it was in understanding rocket propulsion or in the use of orbital mechanics within navigation. However, instead I became bogged down with solving mundane structures and material problems. Moving into my sophomore year, classes did become more interesting with my first fluids and orbital courses. Every time I stepped into an engineering classroom, I felt a sense of excitement in understanding the fundamental equations, rather than the applications to real-world problems.

While I had once run away from engineering, I found myself right back to where I began, but instead I was in the role of a mathematician.

I reflected on my prior math courses, thinking about how I would apply these geometric properties and analysis techniques to problems that I had been introduced to in my aerospace courses. I knew it was time for a change, so I switched gears to classes like complex analysis, partial differential equations, and introduction to proofs. I was hooked. Around the same time, I had my first laboratory experience in mathematics. I spent the summer working on neural networks to reduce the loss from the 2D approximations to the advection-diffusion equation in transport phenomena. It was one of the hardest learning experiences, coming in with very little knowledge of Deep Learning, but the hours spent on literature reviews seemed less like work and more like unravelling my favorite mystery novel. This was the moment in which the puzzle pieces of all my interests across engineering and mathematical disciplines clicked.  So when I finished my summer project, I immediately looked for new opportunities in applied mathematics, and I was fortunate enough to find a supervisor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department to work on Finite Element Methods and the Schrödinger equation. While I had once run away from engineering, I found myself right back to where I began, but instead I was in the role of a mathematician. My supervisor has helped me find confidence in my abilities and given me the opportunity to take lead on my first project, and is the reason I have found the confidence to apply to applied math MS/PhD programs for fall 2022.

I had women like Katherine Johnson to look up to, but she was merely a role model, not an individual I could tangibly connect to.

While I have been undoubtedly lucky to be surrounded by amazing mentors, the lack of women mathematicians and engineers did not go unnoticed. I found my experiences to be hardly unique. When talking to a good friend in the math department, I found that she too had been the only woman in her math classes. In four years, I had only had one woman math professor and one woman graduate student that supervised my research. In my graduate and advanced courses, I was one of two or maybe three women students. The world had long moved away from the old man in the candle-lit room, but the representation of women in the industry was grossly underdeveloped. Looking at research faculty in the graduate programs I applied to, I found the representation to be quite similar. I had women like Katherine Johnson to look up to, but she was merely a role model, not an individual I could tangibly connect to. She seemed just as far remote as the Greek greats.

Inequality seems to be quite an abstract notion and equality just an idealized concept, existing only in philosophical treatises. To encourage more women to pursue a career in academia and research, we must begin by creating real mentor-mentee relationships that go far beyond the professional. Only through this tangible bond can we expect to see true equality in every field, including this complex and elegant language we hold so close and I sincerely hope that one day the word mathematician comes with an image of a woman and a man working side by side in a world intertwined with modern technology.

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Elena Tartaglia

Elena Tartaglia

Born in Melbourne, Australia • Studied Applied Mathematics at the University of Melbourne in Australia • Highest Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematical Physics • Lives in Melbourne, Australia • Occupation Research Scientist

I discovered my love of maths in high school when we started learning algebra. I had never been particularly adept at arithmetic or memorising times tables, but algebra was fun. It was about learning logical rules and applying them, step by step, to solve a problem that seemed impossible from the outset. My maths career so far has taken me from applied maths to mathematical physics to statistics and data science. Though the technical areas have been different, the pattern of understanding fundamental rules to break down big problems has remained.

I followed my heart all the way to a PhD in mathematical physics where I discovered the beauty of diagrammatic algebras: equations made out of squiggly diagrams.

My decision to pursue a career in maths came during my second year of university. I had been studying engineering, which I believed to be a more stable career choice, but after a year and a half I couldn’t get excited about any of the engineering specialisations. My Mum encouraged me to follow my heart and study mathematics: study what you love and you’ll figure out the work later, she advised. I followed my heart all the way to a PhD in mathematical physics where I discovered the beauty of diagrammatic algebras: equations made out of squiggly diagrams.

After a two-year postdoc in Italy, I decided to make the switch from academia to follow a career in data science. I had avoided any statistics and probability in my university studies, because they were not topics I enjoyed in high school, but I soon learned how interesting randomness is and how useful it is for understanding the world. I was lucky enough to land a dream job at Data61, the data analytics unit of CSIRO, Australia’s national science agency. Since then I have been working on industry projects, solving applied problems in the areas of manufacturing, wildfires and public policy with statistics and machine learning. I love that even after this career change, I can still use my mathematical thinking to break problems down into their essential ingredients and solve them step by step.

Reflecting on my path from education to employment, I have learnt that careers don’t have to follow a clear and straight path.

Reflecting on my path from education to employment, I have learnt that careers don’t have to follow a clear and straight path. I have learnt that following your dreams can be a good option, but it isn’t the only one, and that trying out adjacent areas of work that are in-demand can lead to a fulfilling occupation. I have also learnt that an important output of your studies is the ability to teach yourself new skills, because flexibility is a valuable skill in the workforce – plus learning new skills keeps your work interesting.

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Sofía López Ordóñez

Sofía López Ordóñez

Born in Quito, Ecuador • Studied Mathematical Engineering at Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Quito, Ecuador • Highest Degree M.Sc. in Mathematical Optimization • Lives in Quito, Ecuador • Occupation Teaching assistant and Ph.D. student

My math story started with questions, as many other math stories, I suppose. In the early years of high school, math exercises were fun and challenging. I enjoyed solving them, but I never thought I would study math as a career years later. By that time, I wanted to become an engineer, like my dad, and hopefully work at a hydroelectric power plant. But somehow, math was like gravity, and I felt more and more drawn to it. Hence, I decided to study math at Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador at the end of high school. Looking back on it, I think I was lucky. Pursuing a career in math was not common in Ecuador. I had the support of my parents and I also was encouraged by my math teacher. However, I had no idea of what math was really about.

I enjoyed the vitality of the formal math language, which brings the possibility to precisely describe a deduction process and articulate a definition from an intuitive notion.

I found the early stages of my undergraduate studies challenging and, sometimes, difficult. However, I was amazed and triggered. I enjoyed the vitality of the formal math language, which brings the possibility to precisely describe a deduction process and articulate a definition from an intuitive notion. The beauty of the simplicity and richness of math made me stay. Nevertheless, the inflection point in my math story happened when I started to work as a research assistant in a project at the Research Center for Mathematical Modeling in Ecuador, ModeMat. In this project, I worked on the numerical solution of visco-plastic fluids. These fluids have a dual behavior; they move like a solid or like liquid depending on the stress imposed on them. I found the mathematical formulation of these fluids fantastic. In this process, I learned the fundamental laws underlying fluid dynamics, optimization methods and I improved my coding skills. This was the starting point of a journey that led me through a Master’s program in Mathematical Optimization and then, like the flow of a Newtonian fluid, to the Ph.D. program in Applied Mathematics. Being part of the Research Center, ModeMat, has shaped part of my life. I have grown up there from an undergrad student to a Ph.D. student under the supervision of four great advisers: Pedro, Sergio, Juan Carlos, and Luis Miguel. Their guidance during the Ph.D. has been essential and valuable. 

I am confident things are changing. At the moment, in my Ph.D. program, we are more women than men.

Nonetheless, I have realized that every time I was part of an international conference, unconsciously I ended up choosing a woman from the Academy as a role model. This unaware action, years later, made me realize how important visibility is. There were few academic women at the math department while I was an undergrad student; therefore, I had the chance to only have one math woman professor. I am confident things are changing. At the moment, in my Ph.D. program, we are more women than men.

I am in the last year of the Ph.D. This journey has not been like the stream of a calm river. Like a visco-plastic fluid, sometimes I have moved like a solid, slowly and without any change in my progress and, sometimes, one just flows like a liquid in a stream of exquisite results. The chance to write about my story came in an opaque moment of uncertainty and lack of confidence. It took me a while to sit and write it down. However, I have genuinely enjoyed it. This retrospective exercise helped me to reconcile and reconnect. Right now, I am focused on this last year of the Ph.D. and interested in a Postdoc. My thesis is still related to visco-plastic fluids. Therefore, in some sense, I think I kind of accomplished my teenage dream. I am not working at a power plant driven by water but I have a better understanding of the fluid dynamics laws to comprehend the power of water. Finally, I would like to take the final words of Natasha Karp’s math story (which I enjoyed a lot reading) as advice: “Enjoy your journey but don’t expect to know exactly where you are going and keep growing and challenging yourself’’. I think that’s what I will do.

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Clara Stegehuis

Clara Stegehuis

Born in Amersfoort, The Netherlands • Birth year 1991 • Studied Applied Mathematics at Twente University in Enschede, The Netherlands • Highest Degree PhD in Mathematics • Lives in Enschede, The Netherlands • Occupation Assistant Professor

I always liked solving puzzles when I was younger. My dad even made me eat my bread in puzzle-fashion: he cut it into 4×3 squares, and I had to eat them with chess knight’s jumps, and make sure I did not get ‘stuck’ while eating my entire slice of bread. In high school, however, I liked many subjects, so the choice for mathematics was not obvious at all. I thought about studying biology, physics or maybe something more related to medical sciences. But in the end, I chose mathematics, as I thought this would leave my options open later on.

(…) I am now investigating the mathematics behind spreading processes on networks. These have very important applications in the spreading of epidemics, but are also applicable to viral messages on social media.

Even though my choice for mathematics was rather random, it turned out to suit me very well. I really enjoyed solving exercises, and I also appreciated the fact that the same piece of mathematics can often be applied in so many different contexts. For example, I am now investigating the mathematics behind spreading processes on networks. These have very important applications in the spreading of epidemics, but are also applicable to viral messages on social media.

Because I liked my studies so much, I decided to stay at the university. I first did 4 years of PhD research. During my PhD research, I found doing research a bit lonely, which made me doubt whether I would like to continue on this path. So after those four years, I still did not really know whether I would keep on working at a university, or whether I would go and work for a company instead. But when I got offered a job at Twente University as a researcher, I decided to take it, and see whether I would like it. And I am happy to say that now that I do not have to do my own PhD research, I can make my work more collaborative, which I enjoy very much.

I really enjoy sharing my passion for mathematics with others who maybe never got to see mathematics as useful or beautiful

What I like about my job is that it is very versatile. I can do research, which is basically like solving my own puzzles. On other days I teach more, and have interaction with students, which is also very motivating. Besides that, I participate in a lot of outreach activities. That means that I go to high schools and primary schools to talk about mathematics, but also to theaters, science festivals and podcasts. I really enjoy sharing my passion for mathematics with others who maybe never got to see mathematics as useful or beautiful. In high school I never knew that there was so much more to mathematics than quadratic equations, so I like to share that with as many people as possible!

For example, I wrote blogs about how mathematics helps to predict who will win the soccer world championship, but also about using mathematical graph theory to find the most influential musician. I think that depending on your specific interests and hobbies, there is always an application of mathematics that will appeal to you! So in my outreach activities, I always try to think about what the specific audience could find interesting, and then I will show them an application of mathematics that involves this. The great thing about mathematics is that it is so broad that it is always possible to do so. Of course, this involves a lot of work from my side, but I keep on learning from this as well, and it is very rewarding.

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Gabriela Capo Rangel

Gabriela Capo Rangel

Born in Pitesti, Romania • Studied Applied Mathematics at Politehnic University of Bucharest • Erasmus MUNDUS fellow in Mathematical Modeling from University of L’Aquila, University of Nice and University of Hamburg • PhD in Applied Mathematics in the Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, Bilbao, Spain • Lives in Okinawa, Japan Works as a Postdoctoral Scholar in Computational Neuroscience at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST)

My love for math started very early on. Since I was very young, I seemed to always have an analytical mindset and I adored solving puzzles. I was always the geeky kid, that was always curious about everything and I have always been a very solution-oriented person. My parents tell me I was determined to be a researcher from the age of 5, although I am not certain I actually understood what that meant. I used to love all analytical subjects, not only math, but also chemistry and physics. In fact, choosing my career path came extremely close between mathematics and chemistry. Somehow, I always missed chemistry, this is the reason why I went towards neuroscience and every now and then I get the chance to model some biochemistry.

I grew up in a freshly post-communist Romania, where the old generation generally believed that girls should study law or biology just due to the common misconception that girls can memorize better than boys.

Being a woman and choosing to study mathematics, I had to always fight for what I wanted. I grew up in a freshly post-communist Romania, where the old generation generally believed that girls should study law or biology just due to the common misconception that girls can memorize better than boys. Well, my memory has never been very good. I was lucky, because I had an amazing family that supported me in making my own choices and encouraged me to follow my own path.

[My high school professor] was the first person who showed me how to think outside the box, he sparked my curiosity for higher-level math and he treated me as equal to the other boys when preparing for competitions.

My first role model was a young professor in high school. He was my math professor only for the first year of high school and he directed me towards mathematics contests and math olympiads. He was the first person who showed me how to think outside the box, he sparked my curiosity for higher-level math and he treated me as equal to the other boys when preparing for competitions. In most of the contests that I have been, I was even the only girl or between the very few ones. The same trend continued at the university, where I went on and studied Applied Mathematics in Engineering. I studied in an engineering university, with under 10-20% of the total number of students being women.

After I graduated from university, I got an Erasmus MUNDUS fellowship for a Master of two years in Applied Mathematics, a highly competitive master program between three different countries: Italy, France and Germany. I got to experience the educational systems of the three different places, I had the chance to live in all these different places and learn the languages. Even in this international setting, I was still living in a world of men, having very few female colleagues and absolutely no female math professors in any of the three countries.

After graduating with the Master, I was awarded a Severo Ochoa Fellowship at the Basque Center for Applied Mathematics to pursue my PhD in Applied Mathematics in Biosciences. Particularly, I was modeling the interaction between the electrophysiology, the metabolism and the hemodynamics in the human brain. This captivating research gave me the chance to study not only the mechanisms behind the normal functioning of the human brain during resting state or neuronal activation, but also during various pathologies such as brain ischemia and cortical spreading depression. We focused on understanding the strong interconnection between how the electrical signals are transmitted in the brain, the interaction between multiple biochemical species constituting the brain metabolism and the blood flow.

[During my PhD] I met my biggest role model, my PhD advisor, Prof. Daniela Calvetti. She is all I ever dreamed of becoming: extremely intelligent, successful, determined, strong, loving and caring and the best mentor I have ever encountered.

It was then when I met my biggest role model, my PhD advisor, Prof. Daniela Calvetti. She is all I ever dreamed of becoming: extremely intelligent, successful, determined, strong, loving and caring and the best mentor I have ever encountered. She inspired me to gain not only knowledge and passion in my research field, but she inspired me to fight and pursue my dreams, no matter how much work that involves. There are no words to describe the depth of my gratitude, respect and love for her. I can only hope that one day I will inspire somebody, the way she inspired me.

After my PhD, I did a brief postdoc in Bilbao, after which I came to Japan to work as a postdoc at OIST. Here, I belong to the Computational Neuroscience group and my research concerns the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls fine movement. I study the Purkinje neuron dendritic trees and I seek to understand how their morphology affects the spiking properties of these neuronal cells.

I just hope one day I will have the chance to teach and to provide my students not only with the scientific knowledge, but also with the courage and confidence to follow their own dreams.

The academic path is extremely hard to follow. I always feel like I am lacking stability. So far every few years, I have been changing between jobs, countries, friends and languages. Many times I dream about family life, stability and job security. I wanted to give up academia countless times, but I was lucky and I met people who inspired me to go on. I just hope one day I will have the chance to teach and to provide my students not only with the scientific knowledge, but also with the courage and confidence to follow their own dreams.

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Jamie Prezioso

Jamie Prezioso

Born in Warren, Ohio, United State Birth year 1989 Studied Applied Mathematics at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States Lives in Washington, D.C. United States currently a Research Scientist

Growing up, I genuinely enjoyed math from an early age. I have fond memories of solving equations and homemade arithmetic flash cards with my grandfather. He consistently and lovingly encouraged me to pursue math. And so, I did.

I had an inclination that studying mathematics would open an array of opportunities, however, I had no tangible examples of this. Nevertheless, I was drawn to pursue math.

I happily studied and excelled in mathematics throughout middle and high school. When choosing a major in college, I did not even consider math. Having never seen or learned about modern-day mathematicians in school or media, I was unaware of this entire profession. Since I was also interested in medicine, I considered studying biology. I knew of clear academic and career paths in the medical field. Ultimately, my first year in college I was undecided. I had an inclination that studying mathematics would open an array of opportunities, however, I had no tangible examples of this. Nevertheless, I was drawn to pursue math. And so, I did.

I began to discover the ways you could use mathematics to solve problems I found interesting and important, like quantifying the effects of climate change or modeling predator-prey dynamics in fragile ecosystems. I graduated from Walsh University with a Bachelor’s of Science in Mathematics. When applying for graduate programs, I had every intention of obtaining a Master’s degree in a few years and leaving the program for industry. The thought of being in school for nearly all of my twenties seemed unbearable, if not impossible. I did not want to wait for my professional career, and in some sense my “adult” personal life, to begin. Still, I was excited to pursue math. And so, I did.

Through coursework and research, I found I was truly passionate about math. I developed strong quantitative modeling and coding skills. I even got to study areas of biology and medicine.

In the Fall of 2012, I began graduate school at Case Western Reserve University. I studied applied mathematics, taught Calculus to bright undergraduates and conducted research in mathematics and computational neuroscience. It was in graduate school where I grew both personally and professionally. I had many wonderful experiences with brilliant mathematicians from all over the world, many of whom I am still close with today. Through coursework and research, I found I was truly passionate about math. I developed strong quantitative modeling and coding skills. I even got to study areas of biology and medicine. I gained confidence in myself and a deeper understanding of mathematics. And so, I obtained a PhD in Applied Mathematics.

I use my background in mathematics to research machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) models […]

Now, I am an Applied Mathematician. I am a Research Scientist at a consulting firm in the Washington, D.C. area. I use my background in mathematics to research machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) models, focusing on interpretability and explainability. While AI/ML models have proven extremely useful on a variety of tasks, their inherent black-box nature and lack of interpretability limits their use in critical applications, like medicine or autonomous driving. Specifically, I research and develop neural networks, mathematical models which are typically highly over-parameterized but have exhibited superior performance on high dimensional data (e.g. images), trying to better understand how these models make predictions, assess their confidence and incorporate prior expert knowledge.

I feel very fortunate to have a career which aligns with my field of study and allows me to work on problems I am passionate and excited about. I hope that my story, and the stories of the other women here, highlight the vast number of exciting opportunities and careers in mathematics, the careers that I was unaware of for so long.

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Patricia Egger

Patricia Egger

Born in Zurich, Switzerland • Birth year 1990• Studied Mathematics at EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland • Highest degree Master’s in Applied Mathematics • Lives in Lausanne, Switzerland Occupation Information Security Officer

I would love to say that my decision to study math was well thought out, but the truth is it really wasn’t.

At the end of high school, I knew I wanted to study a scientific subject at university and set my sight on chemistry. I think I was attracted to the experiments with cool colors, incredibly fast temperature changes and the idea of learning how to create little explosions. However, about 2 months before the first day of university, I changed my mind and signed up to the math department instead. I’m still not sure I know why I changed my mind; I had done well in high school but had no long-term plan or idea of what kind of math I wanted to do or even what type of job I might be interested in. In any case, it seemed like a good idea at the time.

My first year in math was a wake-up call; high school did not prepare me for mathematical reasoning. But I kept studying hard and after the first year and many hours spent in the library, it clicked. I felt like there was no class I couldn’t ace (with enough effort, of course). From there on, it was relatively smooth sailing until I graduated with my Master’s degree a few years later.

I looked for inspiration in the news; who doesn’t want to be working on a topic that gets regular media coverage?

It was at that point that my lack of long-term thinking caught up with me. In fact, as much as I enjoyed studying math, I couldn’t seem to find a math-related job that tickled my fancy. Instead of taking a job that I didn’t want, I decided to look for an entirely different field and career path where my math skills could be used indirectly. I looked for inspiration in the news; who doesn’t want to be working on a topic that gets regular media coverage? Similarly to today, cybersecurity, particularly cyber incidents, came up often. That’s when I remembered a basic cryptography class I had taken in middle school and that I thoroughly enjoyed. Because cryptography is essentially math, it seemed like it would be my opportunity to shift into cybersecurity. So I went back to university for a semester to take all the security-related courses I could. 

Fast forward a few years and I now work as an information security officer. In my current role, my main goal is to manage cybersecurity risks: understand what might go wrong and how, and ensure we are allocating appropriate resources accordingly. As these risks are present throughout any organization, I interact with many different people on a regular basis, be they developers, lawyers or Top Management.

In fact, I have been very fortunate to meet amazing women and men along the way from who I’ve learned a lot, but I most definitely would not be where I am now if I had tried to base my career on theirs.

Although I don’t use much of my math background in my daily work today, it allowed me to get to where I am today and I don’t regret any of it. On the contrary, I believe my studies gave me some great transferable skills and the confidence to navigate all of the changes and decisions I made along the way.

Although many people influenced and supported me throughout this process, I’m glad I never took anyone’s opinion more seriously than I did my own. In fact, I have been very fortunate to meet amazing women and men along the way from whom I’ve learned a lot, but I most definitely would not be where I am now if I had tried to base my career on theirs.

Posted by HMS in Stories